Oligodontia is a developmental dental anomaly defined by the absence of 6 or more permanent teeth, excluding the third molars. We performed a review with a systematic approach and proposed a guideline for the choice of the bone augmentation surgery. The different bone augmentation technique terms were searched in the PubMed and Science Direct database. Clinical studies were eligible if they reported on pre-implant surgery in patients with oligodontia. The database search yielded 400 studies after duplicates removed. Thirty studies were finally included, involving 410 patients. Sixty-three sinus lifts were performed in 37 patients with no failure. Thirteen out of 33 patients with iliac bone transplantation and two out of 24 with parietal bone transplantation had resorption, one out of 4 patients who received allogeneic bone block had complete failure. Seventy-eight patients underwent guided bone regeneration, none had bone loss. No failure was found with the alveolar distraction osteogenesis technique. Four out of thirteen patients developed permanent hypoesthesia after inferior alveolar nerve transposition. The cumulative implant survival rate was 94.4% after bone augmentation procedures. Extensive edentulous areas should be grafted with parietal bone, as iliac grafts present a greater risk of resorption. Smaller edentulous areas should be treated by endobuccal harvesting or guided bone regeneration. Osteogenesis distraction and nerve transposition are effective surgeries for medium-to-large mandibular edentulous spaces. The implant survival rate is not significantly different between implants placed in grafted and nongrafted bone, the appropriate choice of bone augmentation technique can reduce the risk of peri‑implant bone resorption.
Keywords: Bone graft; Dental implants; Ectodermal dysplasia; Hypodontia; Oligodontia.
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