Expert consensus on the monitoring and treatment of sepsis-induced immunosuppression

Mil Med Res. 2022 Dec 26;9(1):74. doi: 10.1186/s40779-022-00430-y.


Emerged evidence has indicated that immunosuppression is involved in the occurrence and development of sepsis. To provide clinical practice recommendations on the immune function in sepsis, an expert consensus focusing on the monitoring and treatment of sepsis-induced immunosuppression was developed. Literature related to the immune monitoring and treatment of sepsis were retrieved from PubMed, Web of Science, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure to design items and expert opinions were collected through an online questionnaire. Then, the Delphi method was used to form consensus opinions, and RAND appropriateness method was developed to provide consistency evaluation and recommendation levels for consensus opinions. This consensus achieved satisfactory results through two rounds of questionnaire survey, with 2 statements rated as perfect consistency, 13 as very good consistency, and 9 as good consistency. After summarizing the results, a total of 14 strong recommended opinions, 8 weak recommended opinions and 2 non-recommended opinions were produced. Finally, a face-to-face discussion of the consensus opinions was performed through an online meeting, and all judges unanimously agreed on the content of this consensus. In summary, this expert consensus provides a preliminary guidance for the monitoring and treatment of immunosuppression in patients with sepsis.

Keywords: Immune function monitoring; Immunomodulatory therapy; Immunosuppression; Sepsis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Consensus
  • Delphi Technique
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppression Therapy*
  • Sepsis* / therapy
  • Surveys and Questionnaires