Estimated exposure to bisphenol A in breastfed and breastfed plus formula-fed infants in Turkey: a comparison study

Drug Chem Toxicol. 2024 May;47(3):253-263. doi: 10.1080/01480545.2022.2160456. Epub 2022 Dec 26.

Abstract

This study aimed to estimate and compare dietary exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) in exclusively breastfed (EBF) and breastfed plus formula-fed (BF + FF) infants. A total of 70 mothers and their 0-6 month-old infants (40 in the EBF group and 30 in BF + FF group) were included in the study. After the questionnaire form was applied to the mothers, maternal breast milk, infant formula, and infant urine were collected from mother-infant dyads. Total BPA levels in breast milk, infant formula, and infant urine samples were analyzed by the high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). While BPA was detected in 92.5% of the breast milk samples in the EBF group (mean ± SD = 0.59 ± 0.29 ng/mL), BPA was detected in all of the breast milk samples in the BF + FF group (mean ± SD= 0.72 ± 0.37 ng/mL) (p < 0.05). Similarly, 100% of the infant formula samples in the BF + FF group had detectable levels of BPA (mean ± SD = 7.54 ± 1.77 ng/g formula). The mean urinary BPA levels in the EBF infants (4.33 ± 1.89 µg/g creatinine) were not statistically different from the BF + FF infants (5.81 ± 0.11 µg/g creatinine) (p > 0.05). The average daily BPA intake in EBF infants (0.18 ± 0.13 µg/kg body weight (bw)/day) was found to be significantly higher than in BF + FF infants (0.12 ± 0.09 µg/kg bw/day) (p < 0.05). The estimated dietary intakes of BPA for infants in both groups were below the temporary tolerable daily intake (t-TDI) (4 µg/kg bw/day). Consequently, BPA intake of EBF and BF + FF infants were within safe daily limits during the first six months of life.

Keywords: Bisphenol A; exclusive breastfeeding; exposure; formula-fed; urine.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Benzhydryl Compounds* / analysis
  • Benzhydryl Compounds* / urine
  • Breast Feeding*
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Dietary Exposure / analysis
  • Female
  • Food Contamination / analysis
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant Formula*
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Milk, Human* / chemistry
  • Phenols* / analysis
  • Phenols* / urine
  • Turkey
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Phenols
  • bisphenol A