Multicenter study of pediatric Epstein-Barr virus-negative monomorphic post solid organ transplant lymphoproliferative disorders

Cancer. 2023 Mar 1;129(5):780-789. doi: 10.1002/cncr.34600. Epub 2022 Dec 26.


Background: Pediatric Epstein-Barr virus-negative monomorphic post solid organ transplant lymphoproliferative disorder [EBV(-)M-PTLD] comprises approximately 10% of M-PTLD. No large multi-institutional pediatric-specific reports on treatment and outcome are available.

Methods: A multi-institutional retrospective review of solid organ recipients diagnosed with EBV(-)M-PTLD aged ≤21 years between 2001 and 2020 in 12 centers in the United States and United Kingdom was performed, including demographics, staging, treatment, and outcomes data.

Results: Thirty-six patients were identified with EBV(-)M-PTLD. Twenty-three (63.9%) were male. Median age (range) at transplantation, diagnosis of EBV(-)M-PTLD, and interval from transplant to PTLD were 2.2 years (0.1-17), 14 years (3.0-20), and 8.5 years (0.6-18.3), respectively. Kidney (n = 17 [47.2%]) and heart (n = 13 [36.1%]) were the most commonly transplanted organs. Most were Murphy stage III (n = 25 [69.4%]). Lactate dehydrogenase was elevated in 22/34 (64.7%) and ≥2 times upper limit of normal in 11/34 (32.4%). Pathological diagnoses included diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n = 31 [86.1%]) and B-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) not otherwise specified (NOS) (n = 5 [13.9%]). Of nine different regimens used, the most common were: pediatric mature B-NHL-specific regimen (n = 13 [36.1%]) and low-dose cyclophosphamide, prednisone, and rituximab (n = 9 [25%]). Median follow-up from diagnosis was 3.0 years (0.3-11.0 years). Three-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 64.8% and 79.9%, respectively. Of the seven deaths, six were from progressive disease.

Conclusions: EFS and OS were comparable to pediatric EBV(+) PTLD, but inferior to mature B-NHL in immunocompetent pediatric patients. The wide range of therapeutic regimens used directs our work toward developing an active multi-institutional registry to design prospective studies.

Plain language summary: Pediatric Epstein-Barr virus-negative monomorphic post solid organ transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (EBV(-)M-PTLD) have comparable outcomes to EBV(+) PTLD, but are inferior to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in immunocompetent pediatric patients. The variety of treatment regimens used highlights the need to develop a pediatric PTLD registry to prospectively evaluate outcomes. The impact of treatment regimen on relapse risk could not be assessed because of small numbers. In the intensive pediatric B-non-Hodgkin lymphoma chemoimmunotherapy group, 11 of 13 patients remain alive in complete remission after 0.6 to 11 years.

Keywords: EBV negative; PTLD; monomorphic; pediatric; solid organ transplant.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Epstein-Barr Virus Infections* / complications
  • Epstein-Barr Virus Infections* / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Herpesvirus 4, Human
  • Humans
  • Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse* / pathology
  • Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin* / complications
  • Lymphoproliferative Disorders* / diagnosis
  • Lymphoproliferative Disorders* / etiology
  • Male
  • Myeloproliferative Disorders* / complications
  • Organ Transplantation* / adverse effects
  • Prospective Studies
  • Retrospective Studies