Biomimetic Active Materials Guided Immunogenic Cell Death for Enhanced Cancer Immunotherapy

Small Methods. 2023 May;7(5):e2201412. doi: 10.1002/smtd.202201412. Epub 2022 Dec 26.


Despite immunotherapy emerging as a vital approach to improve cancer treatment, the activation of efficient immune responses is still hampered by immunosuppression, especially due to the low tumor immunogenicity. Immunogenic cell death (ICD) is a promising strategy to reshape the tumor microenvironment (TME) for achieving high immunogenicity. Various stimuli are able to effectively initiate their specific ICD by utilizing the corresponding ICD-inducer. However, the ICD-guided antitumor immune effects are usually impaired by various biological barriers and TME-associated immune resistance. Biomimetic active materials are being extensively explored as guided agents for ICD due to their unique advantages. In this review, two major strategies are systematically introduced that have been employed to exploit biomimetic active materials guided ICD for cancer immunotherapy, mainly including naive organism-derived nanoagents and engineered bioactive platforms. This review outlines the recent advances in the field at biomimetic active materials guided physiotherapy, chemotherapy, and biotherapy for ICD induction. The advances and challenges of biomimetic active materials guided ICD for cancer immunotherapy applications are further discussed in future clinical practice. This review provides an overview of the advances of biomimetic active materials for targeting immunoregulation and treatment and can contribute to the future of advanced antitumor combination therapy.

Keywords: biomimetic active materials; cancer immunotherapy; immune regulation; immunogenic cell death; tumor immunogenicity.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents*
  • Biomimetics
  • Immunogenic Cell Death
  • Immunosuppression Therapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Neoplasms* / therapy


  • Antineoplastic Agents