Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifactorial disorder with altered intestinal motility, secretion, and sensation. Serotonin (5-HT) stimulates gut motility and alters serotonin signaling that may lead to both intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms in IBS.
Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the association of serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in IBS with orocecal transit time (OCTT) measured by lactulose hydrogen breath test.
Method: This prospective case-control study included 151 IBS patients (mean±SD 37.4±11.6 years, median 36, range 19-68). Ninety-two patients were diarrhea-predominant IBS (D-IBS), 44 constipation-predominant IBS (C-IBS), 15 alternating diarrhea and constipation IBS (M-IBS), and 100 healthy controls (mean±SD 37.2±11.4 years, median 36, range 20-64 years). 5-HTTLPR gene polymorphism was studied by polymerase chain reaction-based method. 5-HT levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Orocecal transit time (OCTT) was measured by a non-invasive lactulose hydrogen breath test. OCTT was also compared with respect to 5-HTTLPR genotypes in different IBS phenotypes.
Results: Serum serotonin levels were significantly higher in overall IBS patients (152±77 ng/mL, p<0.001), D-IBS (184±76 ng/mL, p<0.001), compared to healthy controls (129±56 ng/mL). There was no difference in 5-HT levels between C-IBS (124±53 ng/mL) and controls. In the case of M-IBS, 5-HT levels were (88±49 ng/mL p<0.05) significantly lower than that of controls. OCTT was significantly shorter in D-IBS patients (95±36 min) as compared to controls (112±41 min). In contrast, C-IBS showed significantly prolonged OCTT (136±54 min). There was a significant difference in OCTT between D-IBS and C-IBS patients (p<0.001). There was no significant association found between OCTT and 5-HTTLPR.
Conclusions: Serum serotonin concentrations were increased in D-IBS compared to controls and C-IBS. OCTT was shorter in D-IBS and delayed in C-IBS patients. There was no association of 5-HTLPR polymorphism with OCTT.
Keywords: Function bowel disorder; Gastrointestinal motility; Hydrogen breath test; Orocecal transit time; Serotonin; Serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism; Small bowel motility.
© 2022. Indian Society of Gastroenterology.