A cross-sectional, multicenter survey of the prevalence and risk factors for Long COVID

Sci Rep. 2022 Dec 27;12(1):22413. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-25398-6.


Long-term sequelae of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) constitute Long COVID. Although Long COVID has been reported globally, its risk factors and effects on quality of life (QOL) remain unclear. We conducted a cross-sectional study using questionnaires and electronic medical records of COVID-19 patients who were diagnosed or hospitalized at five facilities in Japan. Responses were obtained from 285 out of 1,150 patients. More than half of the participants reported Long COVID symptoms of varying severity 1 year after COVID-19. Common sequelae included fatigue, dyspnea, alopecia, concentration problems, memory problems, sleeplessness, and joint pain, which often significantly reduced their QOL. COVID-19 severity was strongly associated with sputum production, chest pain, dyspnea, sore throat, and diarrhea, but not with fatigue, dysgeusia, anosmia, alopecia, and sleeplessness. Fatigue, dysgeusia, anosmia, alopecia, and sleeplessness affected the QOL among participants with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 during the acute phase. Moreover, these sequelae persisted for prolonged periods.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alopecia / complications
  • Anosmia
  • COVID-19* / complications
  • COVID-19* / epidemiology
  • Chest Pain
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dysgeusia
  • Dyspnea / epidemiology
  • Fatigue / complications
  • Fatigue / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
  • Prevalence
  • Quality of Life
  • Risk Factors
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders* / complications