Hyperbaric oxygenation applied before or after mild or hard stress: effects on the redox state in the muscle tissue

Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2023 Jan 1;27(1):9-20. doi: 10.4196/kjpp.2023.27.1.9.


The mechanism is unclear for the reported protective effect of hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning against oxidative stress in tissues, and the distinct effects of hyperbaric oxygen applied after stress. The trained mice were divided into three groups: the control, hyperbaric oxygenation preconditioning, and hyperbaric oxygenation applied after mild (fasting) or hard (prolonged exercise) stress. After preconditioning, we observed a decrease in basal levels of nitric oxide, tetrahydrobiopterin, and catalase despite the drastic increase in inducible and endothelial nitric oxide synthases. Moreover, the basal levels of glutathione, related enzymes, and nitrosative stress only increased in the preconditioning group. The control and preconditioning groups showed a similar mild stress response of the endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthases. At the same time, the activity of all nitric oxide synthase, glutathione (GSH) in muscle, declined in the experimental groups but increased in control during hard stress. The results suggested that hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning provoked uncoupling of nitric oxide synthases and the elevated levels of GSH in muscle during this study, while hyperbaric oxygen applied after stress showed a lower level of GSH but higher recovery post-exercise levels in the majority of antioxidant enzymes. We discuss the possible mechanisms of the redox response and the role of the nitric oxide in this process.

Keywords: Glutathione; Hyperbaric oxygen; Mice; Nitic oxide synthase; Nitric oxide; Stress.