Hamartomas are local malformation of cells that demonstrate abnormal proliferation in the area where they are normally present. Retinal and optic disc hamartomas include astrocytic hamartoma, congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE), simple congenital hamartoma of the retinal pigment epithelium (CSHRPE), combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (CHRRPE), retinal hemangioblastoma (retinal capillary hemangioma), and retinal cavernous hemangioma. Retinal and optic disc hamartomas can be observed sporadically as well as with systemic associations. Astrocytic hamartoma usually appears as a flat, transparent yellowish lesion. CHRPE is a round, pigmented, and flat lesion. CSHRPE usually presents as a dark black macular tumor. CHRRPE consists of vascular, glial, and pigment epithelial components, which can demonstrate peripapillary, macular, and peripheral localization. Retinal hemangioblastoma is a vascular tumor, red-pink in color with tortuous and dilated afferent and efferent vessels, typically located in the peripheral retina or optic disc. Retinal cavernous hemangioma is characterized by the formation of thin-walled saccular angiomatous structures in the retina or optic nerve head resembling concord grapes. Ultrasonography, fundus autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography, optical coherence tomography angiography, and fluorescein angiography methods are used in the diagnosis of retinal and optic disc hamartomas. Some retinal and optic disc hamartomas do not require treatment. However, complications including vitreous hemorrhage, macular exudation, retinal detachment, macular hole, epiretinal membrane, and choroidal neovascularization require treatment.
Keywords: Astrocytic hamartoma; combined hamartoma of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium; congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium; mple congenital hamartoma of the retinal pigment epithelium; retinal cavernous hemangioma; retinal hemangioblastoma.
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