Research Progress of Population Pharmacokinetic of Metformin

Biomed Res Int. 2022 Dec 19;2022:4071111. doi: 10.1155/2022/4071111. eCollection 2022.


Metformin is commonly used as first-line treatment for T2DM (type2 diabetes mellitus). Owing to the high pharmacokinetic (PK) variability, several population pharmacokinetic (PPK) models have been developed for metformin to explore potential covariates that affect its pharmacokinetic variation. This comprehensive review summarized the published PPK studies of metformin, aimed to summarize PPK models of metformin. Most studies described metformin pharmacokinetics as a 2-compartment (2-CMT) model with 4 study describing its pharmacokinetics as 1-compartment (1-CMT). Studies on metformin PPK have shown that obesity, creatinine clearance (CLCr), gene polymorphism, degree of renal function damage, and pathological conditions all have a certain impact on the PK parameters of metformin. It is particularly important to formulate individualized dosing regimens. For future PPK studies of metformin, we believe that more attention should be paid to special populations.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Metformin*
  • Models, Biological
  • Obesity
  • Polymorphism, Genetic


  • Metformin