A Review on Important Zoonotic Bacterial Tick-Borne Diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

J Arthropod Borne Dis. 2021 Sep 30;15(3):265-277. doi: 10.18502/jad.v15i3.9814. eCollection 2021 Sep.


Background: Zoonotic diseases as health concerns worldwide account for more than half of the emerging infectious diseases. Arachnids are powerful vectors to transmit several diseases to humans. Additionally, these emerging zoonotic diseases have been a considerable health threat in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of the WHO (EMRO) due to the large population living close to farms and international trade with nearby countries.

Methods: This review study is based on the reported three tick-borne diseases, Lyme disease, Tularemia, and Q fever, from Iran and other EMRO countries. To this end, we searched PubMed central, ISI web of Science, and Google with the related keywords in English at any time. The reported data are then sorted by countries for each disease.

Results: According to the published data, 15 countries in the region have one/more emerging infectious diseases. Q fever has been the most frequent infection in EMRO countries, while Lyme was less recorded. Furthermore, Iran is among the countries with documented history of all three investigated diseases.

Conclusion: Tick-borne disease is popular among EMRO countries, indicating that they have natural conditions for infections in animals and humans. It appears necessary to develop a disease management strategy and control programs against tick-borne diseases (TBDs). Moreover, the disease-resistant animal could be bred instead of susceptible livestock. Therefore, research studies to control TBDs should be regarded as a top priority plan.

Keywords: Iran; Lyme; Mediterranean Region; Q fever; Tick-borne diseases; Tularemia.

Publication types

  • Review