Background: Few studies have examined survival outcomes in relapsed childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in resource-limited countries. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic factors and survival outcomes of relapsed childhood AML in Thailand.
Methods: The medical records of AML patients aged 0-15 years treated in a major tertiary center in Southern Thailand between December 1979 and December 2019 were reviewed retrospectively. The overall survival (OS) was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.
Results: A total of 316 AML patients were included and relapse occurred in 98 (31%) patients. Of these, 57 (58.2%) and 41 (41.8%) patients had early [≤1 year from first complete remission (CR1)] and late (>1 year from CR1) relapses, respectively. Only 54 (55.1%) patients received chemotherapy after relapse. The 3-year OS of all relapsed patients was 3.5%. The 3-year OS of patients with early and late relapse were 0% and 8.5%, respectively (p=0.002). The 3-year OS of patients who received chemotherapy and those who did not were 6.5% and 0%, respectively (p <0.0001). The median survival time of patients who did not receive chemotherapy was 1.7 months. The 3-year OS of patients who achieved second complete remission (CR2) and those who did not were 12.6% and 0%, respectively (p <0.001).
Conclusion: The relapsed AML rate was 31% and the survival outcome was poor with a 3-year OS of 3.5%. The adverse prognostic factors were early relapse, failure to achieve CR2 and those who did not receive chemotherapy after relapse.
Keywords: relapsed childhood acute myeloid leukemia; resource-limited countries; survival outcome.