Prognosis of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and low-normal left ventricular ejection fraction

Heart. 2023 Apr 25;109(10):771-778. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2022-321853.


Objective: To investigate whether low-normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is associated with adverse outcomes in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and evaluate the incremental value of predictive power of LVEF in the conventional HCM sudden cardiac death (SCD)-risk model.

Methods: This retrospective study included 1858 patients with HCM from two tertiary hospitals between 2008 and 2019. We classified LVEF into three categories: preserved (60%), low normal (50%-60%) and reduced (<50%); there were 1399, 415, and 44 patients with preserved, low-normal, and reduced LVEF, respectively. The primary outcome was a composite of SCD, ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation and appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks. Secondary outcomes were hospitalisation for heart failure (HHF), cardiovascular death and all-cause death.

Results: During the median follow-up of 4.09 years, the primary outcomes occurred in 1.9%. HHF, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death occurred in 3.3%, 1.9%, and 5.3%, respectively. Reduced LVEF was an independent predictor of SCD/equivalent events (adjusted HR (aHR) 5.214, 95% CI 1.574 to 17.274, p=0.007), adding predictive value to the HCM risk-SCD model (net reclassification improvement 0.625). Compared with patients with HCM with preserved LVEF, those with low-normal and reduced LVEF had a higher risk of HHF (LVEF 50%-60%, aHR 2.457, 95% CI 1.423 to 4.241, p=0.001; LVEF <50%, aHR 7.937, 95% CI 3.315 to 19.002, p<0.001) and cardiovascular death (LVEF 50%-60%, aHR 2.641, 95% CI 1.314 to 5.309, p=0.006; LVEF <50%, aHR 5.405, 95% CI 1.530 to 19.092, p=0.009), whereas there was no significant association with all-cause death.

Conclusions: Low-normal LVEF was an independent predictor of HHF and cardiovascular death in patients with HCM.

Keywords: Heart Failure, Systolic; Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Outcome Assessment, Health Care; SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac / complications
  • Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic* / complications
  • Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic* / diagnosis
  • Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic* / therapy
  • Death, Sudden, Cardiac / epidemiology
  • Death, Sudden, Cardiac / etiology
  • Defibrillators, Implantable* / adverse effects
  • Heart Failure* / complications
  • Humans
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Stroke Volume
  • Ventricular Function, Left