Bring the life stages into the domain of basic and clinical pharmacology

Front Pharmacol. 2022 Dec 13:13:923016. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2022.923016. eCollection 2022.


Completely distinct physiological conditions and immune responses exist among different human life stages. Age is not always consistent with the life stage. We proposed to incorporate the concept of the life stages into basic and clinical pharmacology, including clinical trials, drug labels, and drug usage in clinical practice. Life-stage-based medical treatment is the application of medicine according to life stages such as prepuberty, reproductive, and aging. A large number of diseases are life-stage-dependent. Many medications and therapy have shown various age effects but not been recognized as life-stage-dependent. The same dosage and drug applications used in different life stages lead to divergent outcomes. Incorporating life stages in medicine and drug usage will enhance the efficacy and precision of the medication in disease treatment.

Keywords: clinical trial; drug; medicine; menopause; puberty.