Recent advances in quantifying the mechanobiology of cardiac development via computational modeling

Curr Opin Biomed Eng. 2023 Mar:25:100428. doi: 10.1016/j.cobme.2022.100428. Epub 2022 Nov 21.

Abstract

Mechanical forces are essential for coordinating cardiac morphogenesis, but much remains to be discovered about the interactions between mechanical forces and the mechanotransduction pathways they activate. Due to the elaborate and fundamentally multi-physics and multi-scale nature of cardiac mechanobiology, a complete understanding requires multiple experimental and analytical techniques. We identify three fundamental tools used in the field to probe these interactions: high resolution imaging, genetic and molecular analysis, and computational modeling. In this review, we focus on computational modeling and present recent studies employing this tool to investigate the mechanobiological pathways involved with cardiac development. These works demonstrate that understanding the detailed spatial and temporal patterns of biomechanical forces is crucial to building a comprehensive understanding of mechanobiology during cardiac development, and that computational modeling is an effective and efficient tool for obtaining such detail. In this context, multidisciplinary studies combining all three tools present the most compelling results.

Keywords: CFD; cardiac development; hemodynamics; mechanobiology; mechanotransduction.