Isolated systolic or diastolic hypertension and mortality risk in young adults using the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association blood pressure guideline: a longitudinal cohort study

J Hypertens. 2023 Feb 1;41(2):271-279. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000003325. Epub 2022 Nov 16.


Background: Little is known regarding the health effects of different hypertension phenotypes including isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH), and systolic and diastolic hypertension (SDH) defined by the 2017 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guideline among young adults. We conducted this longitudinal study using time-varying analyses to evaluate the relationship between cardiovascular/all-natural mortality risk and different hypertension phenotypes in young adults.

Methods: A total of 284 597 young adults (aged 18-39 years) were recruited between 1996 and 2016. Participants were classified into eight mutually exclusive BP groups: normal blood pressure (BP), elevated BP, stage 1 IDH, stage 1 ISH, stage 1 SDH, stage 2 IDH, stage 2 ISH, and stage 2 SDH. The outcomes were cardiovascular and all-natural mortality.

Results: After a median follow-up of 15.8 years, 2341 all-natural deaths with 442 cardiovascular deaths were observed. When compared with individuals with normal BP, the multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of cardiovascular mortality was 1.39 (1.01-1.93) for elevated BP, 2.00 (1.45-2.77) for stage 1 IDH, 1.66 (1.08-2.56) for stage 1 ISH, 3.08 (2.13-4.45) for stage 1 SDH, 2.85 (1.76-4.62) for stage 2 IDH, 4.30 (2.96-6.25) for stage 2 ISH, and 6.93 (4.99-9.61) for stage 2 SDH, respectively. In consideration to all-natural mortality, similar results were observed for stage 1 SDH, stage 2 ISH, and stage 2 SDH; but not for elevated BP, stage 1 IDH, stage 1 ISH, and stage 2 IDH.

Conclusion: Young adults with stage 1 or stage 2 ISH, IDH, and SDH are at increased risk of cardiovascular death than those with normal BP. Regardless of BP stage, SDH was associated with a higher cardiovascular mortality risk than IDH and ISH.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • American Heart Association
  • Blood Pressure / physiology
  • Cardiology*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Humans
  • Hypertension*
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • United States / epidemiology