Metabolomic profiling in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy eating non-traditional or traditional diets and in healthy controls

Sci Rep. 2022 Dec 30;12(1):22585. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-26322-8.


Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), caused by genetic and environmental factors, usually progresses to heart failure, a major cause of death in elderly people. A diet-associated form of DCM was recently identified in pet dogs eating non-traditional (NT) diets. To identify potential dietary causes, we analyzed metabolomic signatures and gene set/pathway enrichment in (1) all dogs based on disease, diet, and their interactions and (2) dogs with DCM based on diet. Metabolomic analysis was performed in 38 dogs with DCM eating NT diets (DCM-NT), 8 dogs with DCM eating traditional diets, 12 healthy controls eating NT diets, and 17 healthy controls eating traditional diets. Overall, 153 and 63 metabolites differed significantly between dogs with DCM versus healthy controls and dogs eating NT versus traditional diets, respectively, with 12 metabolites overlapping both analyses. Protein-protein interaction networks and gene set enrichment analysis identified 105 significant pathways and gene sets including aging-related pathways (e.g., nuclear factor-kappa B, oxidative damage, inflammation). Seventeen metabolites differed significantly in dogs with DCM eating NT versus traditional diets (e.g., fatty acids, amino acids, legume biomarkers), suggesting different mechanisms for primary versus diet-associated DCM. Our multifaceted metabolomic assessment of DCM in dogs highlighted diet's role in some forms of DCM.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers
  • Cardiomyopathy, Dilated* / metabolism
  • Diet / veterinary
  • Dog Diseases* / metabolism
  • Dogs
  • Heart Failure* / complications
  • Metabolomics


  • Biomarkers