Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between uterine diameters and menstrual abdominal pain intensity in patients with and without endometriosis (EM), and the independent influence of EM on the pain intensity.
Methods: Uterine diameters and the diagnosis of adenomyosis were ascertained by transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS). Menstrual abdominal pain intensity was estimated by visual analog scale (VAS). Linear regression was used to figure out the impact of uterine diameters and EM on the VAS scores. Logistic regression was used to calculate the correlation between uterine diameters and the diagnosis of adenomyosis. The cutoff values of uterine anteroposterior diameter (AD) to predict dysmenorrhea (VAS ≥ 4) and the diagnosis of adenomyosis were determined by receiver operating characteristic curves.
Results: There were 220 patients with and 233 patients without EM included. Uterine AD independently correlated with the VAS scores in patients with (B = .230, P = .000) and without (B = .203, P = .000) EM. A uterine AD of 39.5 mm predicted dysmenorrhea in both groups. The presence of EM increased the VAS scores by 1.151 points when controlling for uterine diameters. Uterine AD also independently correlated with the diagnosis of adenomyosis under TVS in patients with (OR = 1.212, 95% CI = 1.130-1.301; P = .000) and without (OR = 1.192, 95% CI = 1.123-1.263; P = .000) EM. A uterine AD of 38.5 and 39.5 mm predicted the diagnosis of adenomyosis under TVS in patients with and without EM, respectively.
Conclusions: Increased uterine AD, which is probably ascribed to adenomyosis, plays an important role in augmented menstrual abdominal pain intensity. Meanwhile, the presence of EM reinforces the pain.
Keywords: adenomyosis; dysmenorrhea; endometriosis; ultrasonography; uterine diameter.
© 2022 American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.