Synergetic effects of concurrent chronic exposure to a mixture of OCPs and high-fat diets on type 2 diabetes and beneficial effects of caloric restriction in female zebrafish

J Hazard Mater. 2023 Mar 15:446:130659. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.130659. Epub 2022 Dec 23.


This study aimed to investigate the relationship among chronic exposure to a low concentration of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, and caloric restriction in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Thus, female zebrafish were divided into four groups and treated for 12 weeks as follows: (i) negative control, (ii) HFD (obesity) control, (iii) obesity + a mixture of OCPs (OP), and (iv) obesity + a mixture of OCPs + caloric restriction (OPR). We then assessed T2D-related effects via hematological analysis, histopathology, mitochondrial evaluation, and multiomics analyses. The OP group showed a significant increase in glucose levels, whereas the OPR group maintained glucose at nonsignificant levels. Multiomics analyses revealed that the exacerbated metabolic effects in the OP group were associated with molecular alterations in oxidative stress, inflammation, nucleotide metabolism, and glucose/lipid homeostasis. These alterations were histologically verified by the increased numbers of hypertrophic adipocytes and inflammatory cells observed. Caloric restriction activated pathways related to antioxidant response, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, and energy metabolism in zebrafish, leading to preserved glucose homeostasis. In conclusion, this study identified molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic effect of concurrent exposure to a mixture of OCPs and HFD as well as shed light on the beneficial effect of regular caloric restriction in T2D development.

Keywords: Caloric restriction; Obesity; Organochlorine pesticide mixtures; Type 2 diabetes; Zebrafish.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Caloric Restriction
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  • Diet, High-Fat / adverse effects
  • Female
  • Glucose
  • Obesity / metabolism
  • Pesticides* / toxicity
  • Zebrafish


  • Glucose
  • Pesticides