Oral P2Y12 inhibitors are commonly prescribed for cardiovascular disease and include clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor. Each of these drugs has its strengths and weaknesses. Prasugrel and ticagrelor are more potent inhibitors of platelet aggregation and were shown to be superior to clopidogrel in preventing major adverse cardiovascular events after an acute coronary syndrome and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the absence of genotyping. However, both are associated with an increased risk for non-coronary artery bypass-related bleeding. Clopidogrel is a prodrug requiring bioactivation, primarily via the CYP2C19 enzyme. Approximately 30% of individuals have a CYP2C19 no function allele and decreased or no CYP2C19 enzyme activity. Clopidogrel-treated carriers of a CYP2C19 no function allele have decreased exposure to the clopidogrel active metabolite and lesser inhibition of platelet aggregation, which likely contributed to reduced clopidogrel efficacy in clinical trials. The pharmacogenetic data for clopidogrel are most robust in the setting of PCI, but evidence is accumulating for other indications. Guidance is available from expert consensus groups and regulatory agencies to assist with integrating genetic information into P2Y12 inhibitor prescribing decisions, and CYP2C19 genotype-guided antiplatelet therapy after PCI is one of the most common examples of clinical pharmacogenetic implementation. Herein, we review the evidence for pharmacogenetic associations with clopidogrel response and outcomes with genotype-guided P2Y12 inhibitor selection and describe guidance to assist with pharmacogenetic implementation. We also describe processes for applying genotype data for P2Y12 inhibitor therapy selection and remaining gaps in the field. Ultimately, consideration of both clinical and genetic factors may guide selection of P2Y12 inhibitor therapy that optimally balances the atherothrombotic and bleeding risks.
Keywords: CYP2C19; clopidogrel; genetic testing; percutaneous coronary intervention; precision medicine.
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