C60 fullerene attenuates muscle force reduction in a rat during fatigue development

Heliyon. 2022 Dec 21;8(12):e12449. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e12449. eCollection 2022 Dec.


C60 fullerene (C60) as a nanocarbon particle, compatible with biological structures, capable of penetrating through cell membranes and effectively scavenging free radicals, is widely used in biomedicine. A protective effect of C60 on the biomechanics of fast (m. gastrocnemius) and slow (m. soleus) muscle contraction in rats and the pro- and antioxidant balance of muscle tissue during the development of muscle fatigue was studied compared to the same effect of the known antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). C60 and NAC were administered intraperitoneally at doses of 1 and 150 mg kg-1, respectively, daily for 5 days and 1 h before the start of the experiment. The following quantitative markers of muscle fatigue were used: the force of muscle contraction, the level of accumulation of secondary products of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and the oxygen metabolite H2O2, the activity of first-line antioxidant defense enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)), and the condition of the glutathione system (reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activity of the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme). The analysis of the muscle contraction force dynamics in rats against the background of induced muscle fatigue showed, that the effect of C60, 1 h after drug administration, was (15-17)% more effective on fast muscles than on slow muscles. A further slight increase in the effect of C60 was revealed after 2 h of drug injection, (7-9)% in the case of m. gastrocnemius and (5-6)% in the case of m. soleus. An increase in the effect of using C60 occurred within 4 days (the difference between 4 and 5 days did not exceed (3-5)%) and exceeded the effect of NAC by (32-34)%. The analysis of biochemical parameters in rat muscle tissues showed that long-term application of C60 contributed to their decrease by (10-30)% and (5-20)% in fast and slow muscles, respectively, on the 5th day of the experiment. At the same time, the protective effect of C60 was higher compared to NAC by (28-44)%. The obtained results indicate the prospect of using C60 as a potential protective nano agent to improve the efficiency of skeletal muscle function by modifying the reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms that play an important role in the processes of muscle fatigue development.

Keywords: Biomechanical and biochemical parameters; Muscle fatigue; N-acetylcysteine; m. gastrocnemius; m. soleus; С60 fullerene.