Dynamic changes of monocytes subsets predict major adverse cardiovascular events and left ventricular function after STEMI

Sci Rep. 2023 Jan 2;13(1):48. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-26688-9.


We explored how dynamic changes in monocyte subset counts (as opposed to static values to specific time points), and their phagocytic and NFκB activity relate to major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Changes in counts, phagocytic activity and intracellular levels of inhibitory κB kinase β (IKKβ) (a marker of NFκB activity) of monocyte subsets (CD14++CD16-CCR2+ [Mon1], CD14++CD16+CCR2+ [Mon2] and CD14+CD16++CCR2- [Mon3]) were measured by flow cytometry in patients with STEMI at baseline, and again after one week, two weeks, and one month. LVEF was measured by echocardiography at baseline and six months after STEMI. Baseline data included 245 patients (mean ± SD age 60 ± 12 years; 22% female), who were followed for a median of 46 (19-61) months. Multivariate Cox regression demonstrated that more prominent dynamic reduction in Mon2 by week 1 (n = 37) was independently associated with fewer MACE (HR 0.06, 95% CI 0.01-0.55, p = 0.01). Also, less prominent reduction in Mon2 at month 1 (n = 24) was independently predictive of 6-month LVEF. None of the other dynamic changes in monocyte subsets were associated with changes in survival from MACE. Neither phagocytic activity nor IKKβ were associated with survival for each monocyte subset. We showed how distinct pattern of dynamic changes in Mon2 are related to both MACE risk and recovery of cardiac contractility. Further research is needed to understand the mechanism of the monocyte effect and possibilities of their pharmacological manipulation.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Female
  • Humans
  • I-kappa B Kinase
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Monocytes*
  • ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction*
  • Stroke Volume
  • Ventricular Function, Left


  • I-kappa B Kinase