The effect on the brain of the sex-linked recessive form of adrenoleukodystrophy was studied in 40 boys, 4-18 years old. All underwent computed tomography (CT) scanning; six underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MR showed a high sensitivity in demonstrating white matter disease. Auditory pathway disease was characterized as involvement of the lateral lemniscus and medial geniculate body, and visual pathway disease was characterized by lateral geniculate body, Meyer loop, and optic radiation involvement. Contrast-enhanced CT still proved to have a greater capacity (at this time) to show the active, advancing form of the disease and concomitant calcifications. This large CT series also demonstrated the broad and variable expressions of adrenoleukodystrophy, which allowed the unification of previously described atypical forms of the disease.