[Arthroscopic Bankart Repair with Remplissage for Anterior Instability: Functional Outcomes, Risk of Failure]

Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech. 2022;89(6):406-414.
[Article in Czech]

Abstract

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes and the rate of recurrence in patients who had undergone arthroscopic Bankart repair with remplissage for anterior instability of the glenohumeral joint. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 96 arthroscopic Bankart procedures with remplissage performed between 2013 and 2019 at our department in 93 patients (81 men and 12 women; with the mean age of 33 years). We gathered and analysed preoperative data, including a 3D-CT scan of the affected shoulder. Apart from stability, the functional results were assessed postoperatively using the WOSI, SSV, Rowe score, and by measuring the strength of shoulder girdle muscles. The non-parametric MannWhitney U-test was used to identify the predisposing factors for recurrence of glenohumeral instability. RESULTS The arthroscopic Bankart repair with remplissage was indicated in 74 shoulders for primary TUBS and in 22 shoulders as a revision procedure. The recurrent instability was observed in 13 of 96 operated shoulders (13.5%). Subjective instability (positive apprehension test in the extreme positions of the shoulder joint, in abduction and external rotation in particular) was reported by 10 patients (10/13; 77%), three patients experienced a redislocation of the glenohumeral joint in the postoperative follow-up (3/13 patients; 23%). The risk of recurrence of the glenohumeral instability was not correlated with either the number of previous stabilisation procedures, or any other preoperative or intraoperative parameters. Conversely, a new postoperative injury was a factor of key importance. The patients with recurrent instability (subjective instability or glenohumeral dislocation) achieved a significantly lower Rowe score, SSV, postoperative VAS, and worse overall satisfaction with the procedure compared to the group with no recurrent instability. The remplissage induced minor limitations of external rotation at 0° abduction and internal rotation at 90° abduction. After rehabilitation, the muscle strength of the operated shoulder in both groups was comparable to that of the untreated shoulder in all planes of the shoulder range of motion. DISCUSSION Our study confirms the clinical relevance of the addition of remplissage to the arthroscopic Bankart procedure for reducing the rate of recurrent glenohumeral instability in TUBS with a clinically significant Hill-Sachs lesion. Satisfaction with the surgical outcome is high; the functional outcomes are very good, including muscle strength. Surprisingly, though, the risk of recurrent instability does not correlate with the number of implants used in the stabilisation procedure. CONCLUSIONS Addition of remplissage to the arthroscopic Bankart stabilisation in patients with a clinically significant Hill-Sachs lesion shows a low risk of recurrence of glenohumeral instability after surgery compared to the conventional arthroscopic Bankart repair alone. The remplissage does cause minor restrictions in the glenohumeral joint external rotation, but it was not reflected in the satisfaction of patients or a lower clinical score of the shoulder joint. The preoperative assessment of the HillSachs lesion using the "glenoid track" on a 3D-CT scan helps improve the preoperative planning and prediction of outcomes of the stabilisation procedure. Key words: glenohumeral instability, Bankart defect, Hill-Sachs lesion, Bankart repair, remplissage, arthroscopy.

Publication types

  • English Abstract

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Arthroscopy / methods
  • Bankart Lesions* / surgery
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Joint Instability* / etiology
  • Joint Instability* / surgery
  • Male
  • Recurrence
  • Shoulder
  • Shoulder Dislocation* / surgery
  • Shoulder Joint* / diagnostic imaging
  • Shoulder Joint* / surgery