Myopic macular diseases: A review

Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2023 Apr;51(3):229-242. doi: 10.1111/ceo.14200. Epub 2023 Jan 11.


Recent evidence has demonstrated that the global public health burden of myopia is rising rapidly. Highly myopic eyes are associated with increased frequency of eye disorders that can lead to irreversible visual impairment. With recent technological advancement in ophthalmic imaging modalities, various macular complications associated with pathologic myopia are being elucidated. The development and progression of myopic chorioretinal atrophy, myopic macular neovascularization, myopic traction maculopathy and dome-shaped macula are vision-threatening myopic macular diseases. In order to overcome the challenges in managing patients with pathologic myopia, it is important to have a complete understanding in the natural course of these myopic macular diseases. Standardising the classification criteria of pathologic myopia is essential for enhancing clinical surveillance. Personalised pharmaceutical therapy and surgical interventions will help to optimise the treatment outcomes in patients suffering from these myopic macular diseases.

Keywords: choroidal neovascularization; macular neovascularization; myopia; myopic traction maculopathy; pathologic myopia.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Macula Lutea* / pathology
  • Myopia, Degenerative* / complications
  • Myopia, Degenerative* / diagnosis
  • Myopia, Degenerative* / epidemiology
  • Retinal Degeneration*
  • Retinal Diseases* / etiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tomography, Optical Coherence
  • Vision Disorders