Adult sacrococcygeal teratoma: A review

Medicine (Baltimore). 2022 Dec 30;101(52):e32410. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000032410.


Sacrococcygeal teratomas (SCT) in adults are extremely rare, and most SCTs are located either mainly outside the pelvis, with a small number of intrapelvic components, or mostly in the pelvis (types III and IV). The etiology of teratomas remains unknown. Most teratomas are benign, and approximately 1 to 2% of teratomas undergo malignant transformation, including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, sarcoma, and other malignancies. Most SCTs grow insidiously, and their symptoms are not easily detected in the early stages. Some cases may only be discovered through physical examination or compression symptoms when the tumor reaches a detectable size. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have high detection rates for presacral space-occupying lesions and can provide imaging details with guiding significance for the selection of surgical methods. Surgical resection is the preferred treatment option for SCT and can determine the pathological type. Common sacrococcygeal malignancies are mainly immature teratomas and mature teratomas. When the presence of malignant components is confirmed, the treatment model should be adjusted according to pathological type.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Humans
  • Pelvic Neoplasms* / diagnostic imaging
  • Pelvic Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Pelvic Neoplasms* / surgery
  • Pelvis / pathology
  • Sacrococcygeal Region / pathology
  • Spinal Neoplasms* / diagnostic imaging
  • Spinal Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Spinal Neoplasms* / surgery
  • Teratoma* / diagnostic imaging
  • Teratoma* / surgery
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed