Blood Pressure and Dapagliflozin in Heart Failure With Mildly Reduced or Preserved Ejection Fraction: DELIVER

JACC Heart Fail. 2023 Jan;11(1):76-89. doi: 10.1016/j.jchf.2022.09.002. Epub 2022 Oct 2.


Background: Optimizing systolic blood pressure (SBP) in heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction carries a Class I recommendation but with limited evidence. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have antihypertensive effects across cardiovascular disease.

Objectives: The authors examined the interplay between SBP and treatment effects of dapagliflozin on SBP and cardiovascular outcomes.

Methods: The authors analyzed 6,263 DELIVER (Dapagliflozin Evaluation to Improve the LIVEs of Patients With PReserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure) participants and related baseline and mean achieved SBP categories (<120, 120-129, 130-139, ≥140 mm Hg) to the primary outcome (cardiovascular death or worsening HF), secondary outcomes, and safety events. They analyzed whether the blood pressure-lowering effects of dapagliflozin accounted for its treatment effects by adjusting for the change in SBP from baseline to 1 month.

Results: The average age was 72 ± 10 years and 44% were women. SBP <120 mm Hg was associated with higher HF and mortality events, although amputation and stroke risk increased with higher SBP. Dapagliflozin reduced SBP by 1.8 (95% CI: 1.1-2.5) mm Hg compared with placebo at 1 month. The treatment effect of dapagliflozin on the primary outcome and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire total symptom score was consistent across SBP (interaction P = 0.15 and P = 0.98, respectively). Adverse events between arms were similar across SBP categories. The treatment effect was not accounted for by reducing blood pressure.

Conclusions: In DELIVER, risk by SBP was augmented in the lowest and highest categories and varied by endpoint examined. Dapagliflozin modestly decreased SBP compared with placebo. Dapagliflozin was similarly efficacious and safe across the range of baseline SBP. The beneficial effects of dapagliflozin were not accounted for the changes in SBP. (Dapagliflozin Evaluation to Improve the LIVEs of Patients With PReserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure [DELIVER]; NCT03619213).

Keywords: SGLT2; blood pressure; dapagliflozin; heart failure hospitalization; heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Benzhydryl Compounds / pharmacology
  • Benzhydryl Compounds / therapeutic use
  • Blood Pressure / physiology
  • Female
  • Heart Failure*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Stroke Volume / physiology


  • dapagliflozin
  • Benzhydryl Compounds

Associated data