Biochemical outcomes and toxicities in young men with prostate cancer after permanent iodine-125 seed implantation: Prospective cohort study in 6662 patients

Brachytherapy. 2023 May-Jun;22(3):293-303. doi: 10.1016/j.brachy.2022.12.001. Epub 2023 Jan 2.


Purpose: We evaluated the effect of age, <60 and ≥60 years, on biochemical outcomes and toxicities in patients with prostate cancer who underwent permanent seed implantation (PI) ± external beam radiation therapy ± hormone therapy in a national Japanese prospective cohort study (J-POPS).

Methods and materials: The safety and efficacy analyses included 6721 and 6662 patients, respectively. We categorized patients into two age groups: <60 (n = 716) and ≥60 (n = 6,005) years. We used propensity score matching (PSM) to estimate the marginal effect of age on biochemical freedom from failure (bFFF) using a Phoenix definition and Cox proportional hazard models.

Results: The median followup period was 60.0 months. Without PSM, men <60 years demonstrated similar 5-year bFFF (96.3%) compared with men ≥60 years (95.6%; p = 0.576); percent positive biopsies, biologically effective dose, Gleason score, risk classification, and supplemental external beam radiation therapy (p <0.001, <0.001, <0.001, 0.008, and <0.001) were significantly associated with bFFF while age was not (p = 0.576). With PSM, bFFF was not significantly different between age groups (p = 0.664); however, men <60 years showed a significantly lower incidence of declining erectile function, grade ≥2 all urinary toxicities, urinary frequency/urgency, and rectal bleeding (p <0.001, 0.024, 0.031, and 0.010) than men ≥60 years.

Conclusions: After PI, men <60 years achieved a comparable 5-year biochemical control rate and showed a lower incidence of several toxicities compared to men ≥60 years. This suggests that PI should be an excellent treatment option for men <60 years with prostate cancer.

Keywords: Biochemical failure; Brachytherapy; External beam radiation therapy; Propensity score matching; Prostate cancer; Young.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Brachytherapy* / methods
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / therapeutic use
  • Prostatic Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Iodine-125
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen