Immune responses to human fungal pathogens and therapeutic prospects

Nat Rev Immunol. 2023 Jan 4;1-20. doi: 10.1038/s41577-022-00826-w. Online ahead of print.


Pathogenic fungi have emerged as significant causes of infectious morbidity and death in patients with acquired immunodeficiency conditions such as HIV/AIDS and following receipt of chemotherapy, immunosuppressive agents or targeted biologics for neoplastic or autoimmune diseases, or transplants for end organ failure. Furthermore, in recent years, the spread of multidrug-resistant Candida auris has caused life-threatening outbreaks in health-care facilities worldwide and raised serious concerns for global public health. Rapid progress in the discovery and functional characterization of inborn errors of immunity that predispose to fungal disease and the development of clinically relevant animal models have enhanced our understanding of fungal recognition and effector pathways and adaptive immune responses. In this Review, we synthesize our current understanding of the cellular and molecular determinants of mammalian antifungal immunity, focusing on observations that show promise for informing risk stratification, prognosis, prophylaxis and therapies to combat life-threatening fungal infections in vulnerable patient populations.

Publication types

  • Review