Investigation of Laboratory and Clinical Features of Primary Dysmenorrhea: Comparison of Magnesium and Oral Contraceptives in Treatment

Cureus. 2022 Nov 29;14(11):e32028. doi: 10.7759/cureus.32028. eCollection 2022 Nov.


Background The goal of this study was to identify the demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of primary dysmenorrhea (PD) patients, as well as to compare the treatment options of 200 mg magnesium citrate (MgS) and combination oral contraceptive (COC) therapy. Methods This is a case-controlled prospective study consisting of 172 women with PD and a control group consisting of age-matched 172 without PD. The cases in the primary dysmenorrhea group were randomly divided into two groups, with 86 patients in the first group receiving 200 mg MgS, and 86 patients in the second group receiving COC treatment. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to measure the severity of dysmenorrhea. VAS scoring was performed on the control group subjects included in the study at their first evaluation and the PD group subjects before treatment and at the third month of treatment (after three menstrual cycles). Results When compared to healthy controls, the PD patients had significantly more menstrual bleeding (p = 0.005), more history of maternal dysmenorrhea (p < 0.001), lower serum calcium (p < 0.001), lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (p < 0.001) and more 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency (p < 0.001). When compared to the MgS group, the patients in the COC group had significantly lower VAS scores and less need for painkillers following treatment (p < 0.001). The MgS treatment group had significantly lower post-treatment VAS values than pre-treatment VAS values. Conclusion Lower serum calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were found in the presence of PD. In addition, it was observed that the administration of 200 mg MgS to PD patients significantly reduced pelvic pain in dysmenorrhea, although not as much as COC administration, and caused significant reductions in the need for painkillers.

Keywords: combination oral contraceptive; magnesium citrate; primary dysmenorrhea; visual analogue scale; vitamin d.