Determination of glyphosate and AMPA in indoor settled dust by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and implications for human exposure

J Hazard Mater. 2023 Mar 15:446:130654. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.130654. Epub 2022 Dec 23.


The widespread application of glyphosate leads to significant contamination of outdoor environmental compartments, notably air and soil, which can contaminate indoor air and dust. This study assessed the contamination of indoor household dust for the first time in France and potential exposure to glyphosate through the inadvertent ingestion of dust. A specific and new analytical method was developed using HILIC MS/MS (hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry) to measure polar pesticides, such as glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid, and glufosinate, in indoor dust, with a low quantification limit (25 ng/g). The dust from vacuum cleaner bags of 60 rural and urban households (Brittany, France) was analyzed. All samples contained glyphosate (median 1675 ng/g for rural dwellings (n = 29), 457 ng/g for urban dwellings (n = 31)), more than 90 % contained aminomethylphosphonic acid, and none contained glufosinate. Concentrations were influenced by the rural or urban setting, the proximity of crops, and the use of weed killers on driveways or lawns. Glyphosate exposure via indoor dust ingestion was < 1 % of both acceptable daily intake and dietary intake. However, the high quantification limit of the glyphosate concentration in the food analysis method probably leads to overestimation of the dose from food.

Keywords: AMPA; Children's dwellings; Contamination; Environmental; Glufosinate; HILIC; Pesticide; Vacuum bag.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chromatography, Liquid / methods
  • Dust* / analysis
  • Humans
  • Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry* / methods
  • alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid


  • aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA)
  • phosphinothricin
  • alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid
  • Dust
  • glyphosate
  • 1-aminomethylphosphonic acid