Contemporary Pharmacotherapies for Nontuberculosis Mycobacterial Infections: A Narrative Review

Infect Dis Ther. 2023 Feb;12(2):343-365. doi: 10.1007/s40121-022-00750-5. Epub 2023 Jan 7.


Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a group of atypical bacteria that may cause a spectrum of clinical manifestations, including pulmonary, musculoskeletal, skin and soft tissue, and cardiac infections. Antimycobacterial medication regimens for NTM infections require multiple agents with prolonged treatment courses and are often associated with poor tolerance in patients and suboptimal clinical outcomes. This review summarizes NTM pharmacotherapy, including treatment concepts, preferred medication regimens according to NTM species and site of infection, and emerging treatment methods for difficult-to-treat species.

Keywords: Antimycobacterials; Clofazimine; Mycobacterial infections; Mycobacterium abscessus; Mycobacterium avium complex; Nontuberculous; Nontuberculous mycobacteria; Omadacycline; Tedizolid; β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors.

Publication types

  • Review