Cryo-EM structures of amyloid-β filaments with the Arctic mutation (E22G) from human and mouse brains

Acta Neuropathol. 2023 Mar;145(3):325-333. doi: 10.1007/s00401-022-02533-1. Epub 2023 Jan 7.


The Arctic mutation, encoding E693G in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene [E22G in amyloid-β (Aβ)], causes dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease. Here, we report the high-resolution cryo-EM structures of Aβ filaments from the frontal cortex of a previously described case (AβPParc1) with the Arctic mutation. Most filaments consist of two pairs of non-identical protofilaments that comprise residues V12-V40 (human Arctic fold A) and E11-G37 (human Arctic fold B). They have a substructure (residues F20-G37) in common with the folds of type I and type II Aβ42. When compared to the structures of wild-type Aβ42 filaments, there are subtle conformational changes in the human Arctic folds, because of the lack of a side chain at G22, which may strengthen hydrogen bonding between mutant Aβ molecules and promote filament formation. A minority of Aβ42 filaments of type II was also present, as were tau paired helical filaments. In addition, we report the cryo-EM structures of Aβ filaments with the Arctic mutation from mouse knock-in line AppNL-G-F. Most filaments are made of two identical mutant protofilaments that extend from D1 to G37 (AppNL-G-F murine Arctic fold). In a minority of filaments, two dimeric folds pack against each other in an anti-parallel fashion. The AppNL-G-F murine Arctic fold differs from the human Arctic folds, but shares some substructure.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Amyloid-beta; Arctic mutation; Electron cryo-microscopy; Mouse App NL−G−F knock-in line; Tau.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Alzheimer Disease* / metabolism
  • Amyloid beta-Peptides / metabolism
  • Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor / genetics
  • Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Brain / metabolism
  • Cryoelectron Microscopy
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Mutation / genetics


  • Amyloid beta-Peptides
  • Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor