Cognitive and Interpersonal Factors Affecting Social Adjustment of University Students in Pakistan

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Dec 30;20(1):655. doi: 10.3390/ijerph20010655.


Cognitive and interpersonal factors play an important role in the social adjustment of students. Factors affecting the social adjustment of university students have been verified in different cultures. However, no study has tested a concurrent model with the study variables in the Pakistani context. This study aimed to investigate the effect of personal and interpersonal factors on the social adjustment of university students in Pakistan. Three hundred participants from the Azad Jammu and Kashmir regions of Pakistan responded on a questionnaire package containing self-reported measures on social self-efficacy, social anxiety, teachers' social support, and peers' social support. The results indicate that self-efficacy, teachers' support, and peer support have a significant positive effect on the social adjustment of university students, suggesting that an enhanced self-efficacy, and increased teachers' and peers' support would increase social adjustment. However, academic anxiety is inversely associated with social adjustment, suggesting that a higher anxiety level would result in a reduction in social adjustment. Students should be given more opportunities to enhance self-efficacy, obtain social support, and reduce social anxiety.

Keywords: self-efficacy; social adjustment; teachers’ support and peer support.

MeSH terms

  • Cognition
  • Humans
  • Pakistan
  • Social Adjustment*
  • Students* / psychology
  • Universities

Grant support

This research received no external funding.