Clinical Characteristics and Rehabilitation Strategies for the Stomatognathic System Disturbances in Patients with Stroke: A Systematic Review

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Dec 30;20(1):657. doi: 10.3390/ijerph20010657.


Background: Understanding the stomatognathic system disturbances is key to diagnosing them early and implementing rehabilitation approaches to promote functional recovery. The objective of this study was to systematically review all published data that examined the assessment and rehabilitation strategies for the stomatognathic system disturbances in patients with stroke. Methods: Five databases (i.e., PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Science Direct, Web of Science, and PEDro), were screened for manuscripts that included the assessment and rehabilitation strategies for stomatognathic system disturbances. The methodological quality was evaluated using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Results: Sixteen articles were included in this systematic review. The most frequently reported symptoms in patients with stroke included stiffness and thickness of the masseter muscle on the affected side and suprahyoid muscles; facial muscles' asymmetry and weakness; temporomandibular disorders; and a reduced maximum lip force, tongue pressure, and saliva flow rate. The rehabilitation strategies more frequently reported included exercises directed to the jaw, temporomandibular joint, tongue, and neck. The mean score for methodological quality was 85%. Conclusion: The stomatognathic system disturbances are frequently reported among patients with stroke, leading to dysfunction in masticatory performance or swallowing. More studies on interventions for stomatognathic system disturbances are required before conclusions may be drawn. Key Practitioner Message: This systematic review has clinical implications for rehabilitation practices, given that the results may help to develop early assessment and rehabilitation strategies for stomatognathic disturbances in patients with stroke.

Keywords: assessment; rehabilitation; stomatognathic system; systematic review.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review
  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Pressure
  • Stomatognathic System
  • Stroke Rehabilitation*
  • Stroke* / complications
  • Temporomandibular Joint
  • Tongue

Grants and funding

This work was supported by a FPU (“Formación del Profesorado Universitario”) grant of the Spanish Ministry of Education (FPU: 20/21670).