Temporal Changes in Extracellular Vesicle Hemostatic Protein Composition Predict Favourable Left Ventricular Remodeling after Acute Myocardial Infarction

Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Dec 25;24(1):327. doi: 10.3390/ijms24010327.


The subset of plasma extracellular vesicles (EVs) that coprecipitate with low-density lipoprotein (LDL-EVs) carry coagulation and fibrinolysis pathway proteins as cargo. We investigated the association between LDL-EV hemostatic/fibrinolysis protein ratios and post-acute myocardial infarction (post-AMI) left ventricular (LV) remodeling which precedes heart failure. Protein concentrations of von Willebrand factor (VWF), SerpinC1 and plasminogen were determined in LDL-EVs extracted from plasma samples obtained at baseline (within 72 h post-AMI), 1 month and 6 months post-AMI from 198 patients. Patients were categorized as exhibiting adverse (n = 98) or reverse (n = 100) LV remodeling based on changes in LV end-systolic volume (increased or decreased ≥15) over a 6-month period. Multiple level longitudinal data analysis with structural equation (ML-SEM) model was used to assess predictive value for LV remodeling independent of baseline differences. At baseline, protein levels of VWF, SerpinC1 and plasminogen in LDL-EVs did not differ between patients with adverse versus reverse LV remodeling. At 1 month post-AMI, protein levels of VWF and SerpinC1 decreased whilst plasminogen increased in patients with adverse LV remodeling. In contrast, VWF and plasminogen decreased whilst SerpinC1 remained unchanged in patients with reverse LV remodeling. Overall, compared with patients with adverse LV remodeling, higher levels of SerpinC1 and VWF but lower levels of plasminogen resulted in higher ratios of VWF:Plasminogen and SerpinC1:Plasminogen at both 1 month and 6 months post-AMI in patients with reverse LV remodeling. More importantly, ratios VWF:Plasminogen (AUC = 0.674) and SerpinC1:Plasminogen (AUC = 0.712) displayed markedly better prognostic power than NT-proBNP (AUC = 0.384), troponin-I (AUC = 0.467) or troponin-T (AUC = 0.389) (p < 0.001) to predict reverse LV remodeling post-AMI. Temporal changes in the ratios of coagulation to fibrinolysis pathway proteins in LDL-EVs outperform current standard plasma biomarkers in predicting post-AMI reverse LV remodeling. Our findings may provide clinical cues to uncover the cellular mechanisms underpinning post-AMI reverse LV remodeling.

Keywords: acute myocardial infarction; coagulation; extracellular vesicles; fibrinolysis; heart failure; ventricular remodeling.

MeSH terms

  • Extracellular Vesicles* / chemistry
  • Hemostatics*
  • Humans
  • Myocardial Infarction*
  • Plasminogen
  • Ventricular Remodeling
  • von Willebrand Factor / analysis


  • von Willebrand Factor
  • Hemostatics
  • Plasminogen