Seventy-six consecutive patients, mean age 66 +/- 9 years (+/- standard deviation), with isolated aortic valve replacement for calcific valvular aortic stenosis (AS) were studied. Mitral anular calcium (MAC) was detected by echocardiography in 45 patients (59%). Patients with MAC were older (p less than 0.01), had greater peak systolic aortic valve gradients (p less than 0.025), lower cardiac indexes (p less than 0.025) and smaller valve areas (p less than 0.05) than patients without MAC. Thirty-three percent of patients (15 of 45) with MAC required permanent pacemaker implantation after aortic valve replacement, compared with only 10% of patients (3 of 31) without MAC (p less than 0.025). During the follow-up of 7 years (mean 3.8 +/- 1.6), 27% of patients (12 of 45) with MAC died from cardiac causes, compared to only 7% (2 of 31) without MAC (p less than 0.025). Thus, patients with AS and MAC are older, have more severe AS, more frequently undergo permanent pacemaker implantation after aortic valve replacement and more frequently die of cardiac causes than patients with AS and no MAC during follow-up.