Clinical Recommendations to Manage Gastrointestinal Adverse Events in Patients Treated with Glp-1 Receptor Agonists: A Multidisciplinary Expert Consensus

J Clin Med. 2022 Dec 24;12(1):145. doi: 10.3390/jcm12010145.


Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are indicated in type 2 diabetes and obesity for their high efficacy in controlling glycaemia and inducing body weight loss, respectively. Patients may develop gastrointestinal adverse events (GI AEs), namely nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and/or constipation. To minimize their severity and duration, healthcare providers (HCPs) and patients must be aware of appropriate measures to follow while undergoing treatment. An expert panel comprising endocrinologists, nephrologists, primary care physicians, cardiologists, internists and diabetes nurse educators convened across virtual meetings to reach a consensus regarding these compelling recommendations. Firstly, specific guidelines are provided about how to reach the maintenance dose and how to proceed if GI AEs develop during dose-escalation. Secondly, specific directions are set about how to avoid/minimize nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and constipation symptoms. Clinical scenarios representing common situations in daily practice, and infographics useful to guide both HCPs and patients, are included. These recommendations may prevent people with T2D and/or obesity from withdrawing from GLP-1 RAs treatment, thus benefitting from their superior effect on glycaemic control and weight loss.

Keywords: gastrointestinal adverse events; glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists; guidelines; obesity; type 2 diabetes.

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