Celiac Disease Predisposition and Genital Tract Microbiota in Women Affected by Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

Nutrients. 2023 Jan 1;15(1):221. doi: 10.3390/nu15010221.


The incidence of Idiopathic Recurrent Pregnancy Loss (RPL) is doubled in patients suffering from Celiac Disease (CD) compared to healthy populations. CD genetic components are HLA class II genes known as HLA-DQ2 and DQ8. Genetically susceptible women can remain asymptomatic even though they are exposed to a doubled risk of RPL compared to the general population. Furthermore, CD has been associated with microbiota alterations. The aim of this study is to evaluate endometrial and vaginal microbiota in HLA-DQ2/DQ8 positive and negative RPL patients compared to healthy pregnant women. Endometrial and vaginal microbiota of 3 subgroups were evaluated: 15 HLA-DQ2/DQ8 positive RPL women, 25 HLA DQ2/DQ8 negative RPL women (for a total of 40 RPL women) and 7 healthy fertile controls with previous uncomplicated pregnancies (all HLA-DQ2/DQ8 negative). The 2 RPL subgroups (HLA-DQ2/DQ8 positive and negative) showed a different endometrial and vaginal composition in the Lactobacillacae family compared to controls: Lactobacillus acidophilus was absent both in the vaginal and endometrial samples of RPL women, while Lactobaciluus iners, which can favor a less stable vaginal microbiota, was found only in RPL women (26.4% in HLA DQ2/DQ8 positive and 22.1% HLA DQ2/DQ8 negative) in both the vaginal and endometrial districts. In conclusion, both HLA DQ2/DQ8 positive-RPL and HLA DQ2/DQ8 negative-RPL women showed different endometrial and vaginal microbiota composition compared to healthy controls.

Keywords: celiac disease predisposition; genital microbiota; recurrent pregnancy loss.

MeSH terms

  • Abortion, Habitual*
  • Celiac Disease* / epidemiology
  • Celiac Disease* / genetics
  • Female
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Genitalia
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Pregnancy

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