Assessment of some Physiological Biomarkers in COVID-19 Patients in Thi-Qar, Iraq

Arch Razi Inst. 2022 Jun 30;77(3):1097-1104. doi: 10.22092/ARI.2022.357267.2006. eCollection 2022 Jun.

Abstract

It is believed that many biomarkers and factors could be linked to the prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the association of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), D-Dimer, vitamin D, and ferritin statuses with the prognosis of COVID-19; moreover, it was attempted to investigate its prevalence according to age, employment status, body mass index (BMI), and place of residency in a population sample of hospitalized patients in Thi-Qar, Iraq. This study evaluated 200 COVID-19 patients and 100 controls. The BMI of all individuals was calculated, and such demographic characteristics as age, gender, place of residency, and occupational status were collected from all participants. Blood samples were taken and used to estimate D-Dimer, LDH, vitamin D, ferritin, oxygen, and pulse rate. The mean age of the patients approached the fifth decade, and 72% of the cases were more than 40 years of age. In addition, 60% of the patients were living in the countryside, and 52% of the participants were employed, compared to only 8% of the cases who were students. The BMI of the patients was obtained at 31.44±10.2 kg/m2; accordingly, 47% and 40% of the cases were obese and overweight, respectively, compared to only 12% of the patients who had normal weight (P˂0.05). There were significantly lower vitamin D levels in the patients; however, the concentrations of LDH, serum ferritin, and D-Dimer were significantly higher in the patients, compared to the control group (P˂0.05). Not only age and body weight but also employment status and place of residency maybe also the important risk factors for COVID-19 distribution. LDH, D-dimer, vitamin D, and ferritin statuses could be used as good biomarkers for this disease and its severity.

Keywords: Blood parameter; COVID-19; Iraq; Livelihood condition.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers
  • C-Reactive Protein / metabolism
  • COVID-19* / epidemiology
  • COVID-19* / veterinary
  • Ferritins
  • Iraq / epidemiology
  • Vitamin D

Substances

  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Biomarkers
  • Vitamin D
  • Ferritins