Ontogenesis of neural segments and positional relationships between the segments and other organs during neurulation were studied in 1,423 ICR mouse embryos by binocular dissecting, light, and scanning electron microscopy. Late in the presomite stage, two transverse sulci, preotic and otic, were seen on the prospective luminal surface of the neural folds. By somite stage 19, the former subdivided into five neuromeres, and by somite stage 21, the latter subdivided into four neuromeres. From the rostral, preotic sulcus, moreover, five other neuromeres were formed by somite stage 20, and between the otic sulcus and the first somite, two neuromeres were formed by somite stage 28. In the caudal part, from the level of the first somite, a total of 39 neuromeres were formed one after another by somite stage 39, and their positions almost correlated with each corresponding somite. Furthermore, the isthmus grew in the boundary between the fifth and sixth neuromere. The most protruding zone in the preotic sulcus formed the eighth neuromere and was located adjacent to the first branchial arch and the trigeminal ganglion. The most protruding zone in the otic sulcus also formed the 11th neuromere and was located adjacent to the second branchial arch. The 12th and 13th neuromeres were situated adjacent to the otic vesicle; the 23rd to 28th neuromeres, adjacent to the forelimb bud; and the 40th to 46th neuromeres, adjacent to the hindlimb bud.