Postoperative delirium (POD) is a frequent complication in geriatric patients with hip fractures, which is linked to poorer functional recovery, longer hospital stays, and higher short-and long-term mortality. Patients with increased age, preoperative cognitive impairment, comorbidities, perioperative polypharmacy, and delayed surgery are more prone to develop POD after hip fracture surgery. In this narrative review, we outlined the latest findings on postoperative delirium in geriatric patients with hip fractures, focusing on its pathophysiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. Perioperative risk prediction, avoidance of certain medications, and orthogeriatric comprehensive care are all examples of effective interventions. Choices of anesthesia technique may not be associated with a significant difference in the incidence of postoperative delirium in geriatric patients with hip fractures. There are few pharmaceutical measures available for POD treatment. Dexmedetomidine and multimodal analgesia may be effective for managing postoperative delirium, and adverse complications should be considered when using antipsychotics. In conclusion, perioperative risk intervention based on orthogeriatric comprehensive care is the most effective strategy for preventing postoperative delirium in geriatric patients with hip fractures.
Keywords: geriatric patients; hip fractures; orthogeriatrics; postoperative delirium; prevention; treatment.
Copyright © 2022 Chen, Liang, Wu, Deng, Wang, Lunzhu and Li.