Diagnosis and Treatment of Cardiac Sarcoidosis

Circ J. 2023 Mar 24;87(4):471-480. doi: 10.1253/circj.CJ-22-0671. Epub 2023 Jan 7.


About 5% of sarcoidosis patients develop clinically manifest cardiac features. Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) typically presents with conduction abnormalities, ventricular arrhythmias and heart failure. Its diagnosis is challenging and requires a substantial degree of clinical suspicion as well as expertise in advanced cardiac imaging. Adverse events, particularly malignant arrhythmias and development of heart failure, are common among CS patients. A timely diagnosis is paramount to ameliorating outcomes for these patients. Despite weak evidence, immunosuppression (primarily with corticosteroids) is generally recommended in the presence of active inflammation in the myocardium. The burden of malignant arrhythmias remains important regardless of treatment, thus leading to the recommended use of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator in most patients with clinically manifest CS.

Keywords: Cardiac sarcoidosis; Cardiomyopathy; Heart block; Ventricular arrhythmia.

MeSH terms

  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac
  • Cardiomyopathies* / diagnosis
  • Cardiomyopathies* / therapy
  • Defibrillators, Implantable*
  • Heart Failure*
  • Humans
  • Myocarditis*
  • Sarcoidosis* / diagnosis
  • Sarcoidosis* / therapy