Recent updates in enthesitis-related arthritis

Rheumatol Int. 2023 Mar;43(3):409-420. doi: 10.1007/s00296-023-05274-w. Epub 2023 Jan 11.


Enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA) is a category of juvenile idiopathic arthritis which belongs to the spectrum of diseases that are included in juvenile spondyloarthropathy. In recent years, there have been significant advances in understanding pathogenesis, tools to assess disease activity, early recognition of the axial disease, and targeted therapy using IL-17 inhibitors and small molecule inhibitors. The current narrative review highlights these new advances. Among many hypotheses linking HLA B27 to ERA, one of them is the effect of HLA B27 on gut dysbiosis. However, recent data suggest that gut dysbiosis is probably not determined by HLA B27. Though children present with arthritis and enthesitis, axial disease is present in 50-60% on MRI. Using data-driven approach, discriminative MRI finding for active and chronic diseases has been defined for children. This will help in the early recognition of disease. An abridged version of juvenile spondyloarthropathy disease activity (JSpADA) score without the need for acute phase reactants and Schober test performed as well as the original score may increase its acceptance in routine practice. Secukinumab (anti-IL-17 antibody) has shown a more than 75% response rate in children with ERA and may be a good alternative to anti-TNF therapy. Initial data with tofacitinib also look promising. All these will translate into better outcomes for children with ERA.

Keywords: Arthritis, juvenile; Biologics; HLA B27; Juvenile Spondyloarthropathy; Outcome measures.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arthritis, Juvenile*
  • Child
  • Dysbiosis
  • HLA-B27 Antigen
  • Humans
  • Spondylitis, Ankylosing*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors


  • HLA-B27 Antigen
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors