Paracoccidioides and Paracoccidioidomycosis in the 21st Century

Mycopathologia. 2023 Apr;188(1-2):129-133. doi: 10.1007/s11046-022-00704-y. Epub 2023 Jan 12.


Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) defines a broad spectrum of human and animal diseases caused by Paracoccidioides species (Onygenales). In the twenty-first century, Paracoccidioides advanced from a monotypic taxon to a genus that harbors seven species, including P. brasiliensis sensu stricto, P. americana, P. restrepiensis, P. venezuelensis, P. lutzii, P. loboi, and P. cetii. Classic PCM, acquired upon inhalation of propagules from P. brasiliensis sensu stricto, P. americana, P. restrepiensis, P. venezuelensis, and P. lutzii, affects the human lungs and may progress to systemic granulomatous disease with tegumentary and visceral involvement. On the other hand, PCM loboi and PCM ceti caused by the unculturable P. loboi and P. cetii are subcutaneous mycoses, typically observed as keloid lesions in humans and dolphins. Such heterogeneity highlights the importance of recognizing species boundaries in Paracoccidioides to gain insights into the ecology, evolution, clinical features, and mitigation strategies to tackle the advance of PCM.

Keywords: Diagnosis; Epidemiology; Paracoccidioides americana; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis; Paracoccidioides cetii, Paracoccidioides lutzii; Paracoccidioides loboi; Paracoccidioides restrepiensis; Paracoccidioides venezuelensis; Systemic mycosis.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Dermatomycoses*
  • Dolphins*
  • Granuloma
  • Humans
  • Paracoccidioides*
  • Paracoccidioidomycosis* / epidemiology
  • Paracoccidioidomycosis* / pathology
  • Paracoccidioidomycosis* / veterinary