Male factor infertility and assisted reproductive technologies: indications, minimum access criteria and outcomes

J Endocrinol Invest. 2023 Jun;46(6):1079-1085. doi: 10.1007/s40618-022-02000-4. Epub 2023 Jan 12.


Background: Infertility, which is defined as the inability to conceive after at least 12 months of regular unprotected sexual intercourses, affects about 15-20% of couples worldwide and a male factor is involved in about half of the cases. The development of assisted reproductive technology (ART) made it possible to conceive also to individuals affected from severe oligospermia or azoospermia. However, the impact of the male factor on embryo development, implantation, prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities, genetic and epigenetic alterations, and clinical and obstetric outcomes is still controversial.

Purpose: This narrative review examines the indications, minimum access criteria, and outcomes by individual ART technique in relation to the male factor.

Keywords: Assisted reproductive technology (ART); Azoospermia; ICSI–IVF; Oligozoospermia; Severe male factor.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Azoospermia* / genetics
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infertility* / therapy
  • Infertility, Male* / diagnosis
  • Infertility, Male* / etiology
  • Infertility, Male* / therapy
  • Male
  • Pregnancy
  • Reproductive Techniques, Assisted