A complete understanding of the genetic determinants underlying mammalian physiology and disease is limited by the capacity for high-throughput genetic dissection in the living organism. Genome-wide CRISPR screening is a powerful method for uncovering the genetic regulation of cellular processes, but the need to stably deliver single guide RNAs to millions of cells has largely restricted its implementation to ex vivo systems. There thus remains a need for accessible high-throughput functional genomics in vivo. Here, we establish genome-wide screening in the liver of a single mouse and use this approach to uncover regulation of hepatocyte fitness. We uncover pathways not identified in cell culture screens, underscoring the power of genetic dissection in the organism. The approach we developed is accessible, scalable, and adaptable to diverse phenotypes and applications. We have hereby established a foundation for high-throughput functional genomics in a living mammal, enabling comprehensive investigation of physiology and disease.