Systemic inflammatory markers and EEG features of children with FIRES receiving anakinra

Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2023 Mar;10(3):440-446. doi: 10.1002/acn3.51714. Epub 2023 Jan 16.


In a retrospective case series of 10 children with cryptogenic FIRES, we sought to describe the early clinical course and potential biomarkers following anakinra initiation. Six children achieved anesthetic withdrawal within 3 weeks of therapy and one in week four. Of the available cEEG (six children), CRP (10 children), and serum cytokine (six children) studies, there were temporal changes in highly epileptiform bursts (observed in three children), CRP, IL-6, and IL-10 levels that might parallel clinical progression. These observations may represent candidate biomarkers for monitoring clinical progression and therapeutic interventions including anakinra, which merits further investigation in future studies.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Cytokines*
  • Disease Progression
  • Electroencephalography
  • Humans
  • Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein* / therapeutic use
  • Retrospective Studies


  • Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein
  • Cytokines