Asthma and allergic diseases: Cross talk of immune system and environmental factors

Eur J Immunol. 2023 Jun;53(6):e2249981. doi: 10.1002/eji.202249981. Epub 2023 Feb 1.


Air pollution and immune-related diseases including allergy and asthma are constantly on the rise worldwide. Thus, a comprehensive investigation of environmentally induced immune regulation is required for a deeper understanding of disease pathogenesis, progression as well as prevention. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on environmental factors such as microbiome or geographical locations with harmful or protective effects for human health and their different routes of exposure. This review comprises a brief outline regarding the latest findings on the interaction of environmental factors with innate and adaptive regulation of the immune system, exemplarily for one protective and one harmful environmental factor, respectively.

Keywords: Air pollution; Allergy; Asthma; Environment; Immune regulation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptive Immunity
  • Asthma* / immunology
  • Humans
  • Hypersensitivity* / immunology
  • Immune System*
  • Immunity, Innate