Kinetics of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Response Following Two Doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccine: A Japanese Single-Center Primary Care Clinic Report Involving Volunteers and Patients with Autoimmune Disease

Infect Dis Rep. 2022 Dec 26;15(1):24-33. doi: 10.3390/idr15010003.


Despite the promising effectiveness of the coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination using an mRNA vaccine, the short efficacy duration and some poor responses to the vaccination remain major concerns. We aimed to clarify the monthly kinetics of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain antibody response after two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine in a Japanese population. A chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLIA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to measure the antibody levels in 81 Japanese adults (age, <65 years). The antibody levels increased 10-fold at 2−3 weeks following the second dose of BNT162b2 and declined thereafter to approximately 50%, 20%, and 10% of the peak levels at 2, 3, and 6 months, respectively. To compare the antibody titers among different groups, older adults (age, >65 years; n = 38) and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, n = 14) were also investigated. A decline in the mean relative antibody titers was observed in older men compared with younger men and in patients with SLE compared with individuals aged <65 years. Although the antibody levels increased drastically following two BNT162b2 doses, they then declined rapidly. Furthermore, poor responders to the vaccination were observed. Repeated vaccinations are required to maintain high antibody levels.

Keywords: BNT162b2; COVID-19 vaccination; Japanese people; older men; systemic lupus erythematosus.